There are a number of ways to prevent and reduce the risk of HIV transmission.
HIV transmission is when the Human Immunodeficiency Virus is passed from one person to another.
HIV can be transmitted in three main ways:
- Sexual transmission (via unprotected sex without a condom)
- Transmission through blood (such as used needles and blood donations)
- Mother-to-child transmission (during pregnancy, labour, delivery or breastfeeding).
HIV prevention methods try to address the three main routes of transmission listed above.
Knowing the facts about HIV and being aware of your status (if you are HIV-positive or HIV-negative) makes it easier to prevent HIV infection.
- Condom use ( including female condoms)
- Safer sex education
- Treating sexually transmitted infections
- Male circumcision.
Preventing HIV transmission through blood
Preventing mother-to-child transmission
There are a number of steps to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV:
- Testing the mother for HIV at their first antenatal appointment, during their third trimester and after delivery of their baby.
- Treatment should be offered if the mother tests positive.
- The baby should be tested when it is born and also offered treatment if positive.